| Home | Contact |




Sources :- http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov

Terminalia arjuna protects mouse hearts against sodium fluoride-induced oxidative stress.

Sinha M, Manna P, Sil PC.*

Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, Kolkata, India.

Fluoride is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. In the current study we have investigated the antioxidative properties of an ethanol extract of the bark of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna ethanol extract [TAEE]) against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced oxidative stress in murine heart. Experimental mice were divided into four groups. The first group served as the normal control. The second group received NaF at a dose of 600 ppm through drinking water for 1 week and served as the toxin control. The third group was exposed to TAEE (at a dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight for 1 week) prior to NaF intoxication, and the last group was treated with vitamin C at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for 1 week prior to NaF intoxication and served as the positive control in the study. The activities of various antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase), levels of cellular metabolites, reduced glutathione, and oxidized glutathione, levels of lipid peroxidation end products, and protein carbonyl contents were determined in the cardiac tissues of all the experimental animals. NaF intoxication significantly altered all the indices related to the prooxidant-antioxidant status of the heart; treatment with the active constituents prior to NaF administration, however, prevented these alterations. In addition, the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay revealed that TAEE enhanced the cardiac intracellular antioxidant activity. Histological studies also demonstrated a cardioprotective action of TAEE. The combined results suggest that TAEE protects murine hearts from NaF-induced oxidative stress, probably via its antioxidant properties.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 19053867 [PubMed - in process]

Two new bioactive oleanane triterpene glycosides from Terminalia arjuna.

Alam MS, Kaur G, Ali A, Hamid H, Ali M, Athar M.

Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India. msalamchem@yahoo.com

Two new oleanane-type triterpene glycosides designated as Termiarjunoside I and Termiarjunoside II were isolated from stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae) and characterized as olean-1alpha,3beta,9alpha,22alpha-tetraol-12-en-28-oic acid-3beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and olean-3alpha,5alpha,25-triol-12-en-23,28-dioic acid-3alpha-D-glucopyranoside (2) based on chemical and spectral data evidences. Both compounds 1 and 2 potently suppressed the release of nitric oxide and superoxide from macrophages and also inhibited aggregation of platelets.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 18932092 [PubMed - in process]

Antioxidant, antihypertensive, and antibacterial properties of endophytic Pestalotiopsis species from medicinal plants.

Tejesvi MV, Kini KR, Prakash HS, Subbiah V, Shetty HS.

Department of Studies in Applied Botany and Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570 006, Karnataka, India. mvtejesvi@gmail.com

Pestalotiopsis species were most dominant endophytic species isolated from four medicinal plants including Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia chebula, Azadirachta indica, and Holarrhena antidysenterica. Thirty Pestalotiopsis species isolated from different parts of the medicinal plants were selected for the study. The antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of Pestalotiopsis isolates were determined by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibitory activity, lipid peroxidation, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition activity. Pestalotiopsis isolates of T. arjuna origin exhibited maximum radical scavenging activity compared with the others. The IC50 values of Pestalotiopsis extracts for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity ranged from 14 to 27 microg/mL compared with 15 and 6 microg/mL for butylated hydroxytoluene and ascorbic acid, respectively. The DNA damage study was also done for three isolates, TC-315, TA-37, and TA-60; TA-37 gave 80% protection. The IC50 values of Pestalotiopsis extracts for lipid peroxidation ranged between 30 and 35.5 microg/mL, while for the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, it was 26 microg/mL. Out of 32 fungal extracts screened for antihypertensive assay, five (TA-37, TA-60, TA-102, TA-103, and TC-320) showed >60% inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme. The IC50 values for five extracts ranged from 21 to 37 microg/mL and was 20 microg/mL for captopril used as a positive control. The antibacterial activity was measured by the microplate-based turbidity measurement method. Four Pestalotiopsis extracts (TA-04, TA-37, TA-60, and TA-102) showed >75% inhibition against five bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum, and Staphylococcus aureus. The antioxidant, antibacterial, and antihypertensive activities demonstrated the potential of Pestalotiopsis extracts as therapeutic targets.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 18772940 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of Terminalia arjuna extract on adriamycin-induced DNA damage.

Reddy TK, Seshadri P, Reddy KK, Jagetia GC, Reddy CD.

Division of Cancer Biology, Sugen Life Sciences, Tirupati, 517505, AP, India. drkotireddy@gmail.com

The effect of a bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TAE) was studied on the alteration of adriamycin (ADR)-induced micronuclei formation in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Exposure of lymphocytes to ADR resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the micronuclei formation indicating DNA damage. Pretreatment of lymphocytes with TAE before ADR treatment resulted in a significant decline in micronuclei formation. Increasing doses of ADR caused a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of lymphocytes bearing one, two and multiple micronuclei. Prior exposure of lymphocytes to 15 microg/mL of TAE significantly reduced the frequency of lymphocytes bearing one, two and multiple micronuclei when compared with ADR-treated control. TAE-inhibited the induction of (*)OH (hydroxyl), O2(*-) (superoxide), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(*+) (2,2-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radicals in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that TAE protects DNA against ADR-induced damage.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 18729254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of Terminalia arjuna on antioxidant defense system in cancer.

Verma N, Vinayak M.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Study in Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, India.

Constant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during aerobic metabolism is balanced by antioxidant defense system of an organism. Although low level of ROS is important for various physiological functions, its accumulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases such as cancer and coronary heart disease and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. It is generally assumed that frequent consumption of phytochemicals derived from vegetables, fruits, tea and herbs may contribute to shift the balance towards an adequate antioxidant status. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of medicinal plant Terminalia arjuna on antioxidant defense system in lymphoma bearing AKR mice. Antioxidant action of T. arjuna is monitored by the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S transferase which constitute major antioxidant defense system by scavenging ROS. These enzyme activities are low in lymphoma bearing mice indicating impaired antioxidant defense system. Oral administration of different doses of aqueous extract of T. arjuna causes significant elevation in the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S transferase. T. arjuna is found to down regulate anaerobic metabolism by inhibiting the activity of lactate dehydrogenase in lymphoma bearing mice, which was elevated in untreated cancerous mice. The results indicate the antioxidant action of aqueous extract of T. arjuna, which may play a role in the anti carcinogenic activity by reducing the oxidative stress along with inhibition of anaerobic metabolism.

PMID: 18537039 [PubMed - in process]

Effect of methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna against Helicobacter pylori 26695 lipopolysaccharide-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

Devi RS, Kist M, Vani G, Devi CS.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu, India. devibiochem@gmail.com

Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (HP-LPS) is a potent virulence factor in the causation of gastric ulcer and gastritis. H. pylori-induced gastric pathology is prevalent throughout the world. Herbal medicines are attracting attention because of their traditional values, popularity and belief, as well as for their advantages such as less toxicity, affordability and medicinal value. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-ulcer effect of a methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) against HP-LPS-induced gastric damage in rats. Ulcers were induced with HP-LPS (50 mug per animal) administered orally daily for 3 days. The efficacy of TA on gastric secretory parameters such as volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, pepsin concentration, and the cytoprotective parameters such as protein-bound carbohydrate complexes in gastric juice and gastric mucosa was assessed. The protective effect of TA was also confirmed by histopathological examination of gastric mucosa. HP-LPS-induced alterations in gastric secretory parameters were altered favourably in rats treated with TA, suggesting that TA has an anti-secretory role. Furthermore, HP-LPS-induced impairments in gastric defence factors were also prevented by treatment with TA. These results suggest that the severe cellular damage and pathological changes caused by HP-LPS are mitigated by TA; these effects are comparable with those of sucralfate. The anti-ulcer effect of TA may reflect its ability to combat factors that damage the gastric mucosa, and to protect the mucosal defensive factors.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 18380924 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Protective effects of Terminalia arjuna against Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

Singh G, Singh AT, Abraham A, Bhat B, Mukherjee A, Verma R, Agarwal SK, Jha S, Mukherjee R, Burman AC.

Dabur Research Foundation, 22 Site IV, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad 201010, U.P., India.

Terminalia arjuna has been marked as a potential cardioprotective agent since vedic period. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of butanolic fraction of Terminalia arjuna bark (TA-05) on Doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiotoxicity. Male wistar rats were used as in vivo model for the study. TA-05 was administered orally to Wistar rats at different doses (0.42 mg/kg, 0.85 mg/kg, 1.7 mg/kg, 3.4 mg/kg and 6.8 mg/kg) for 6 days/week for 4 weeks. Thereafter, all the animals except saline and TA-05-treated controls were administered 20 mg/kg Dox intraperitonially. There was a significant decrease in myocardial superoxide dismutase (38.94%) and reduced glutathione (23.84%) in animals treated with Dox. Concurrently marked increase in serum creatine kinase-MB (CKMB) activity (48.11%) as well as increase in extent of lipid peroxidation (2.55-fold) was reported. Co-treatment of TA-05 and Dox resulted in an increase in the cardiac antioxidant enzymes, decrease in serum CKMB levels and reduction in lipid peroxidation as compared to Dox-treated animals. Electron microscopic studies in Dox-treated animals revealed mitochondrial swelling, Z-band disarray, focal dilatation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and lipid inclusions, whereas the concurrent administration of TA-05 led to a lesser degree of Dox-induced histological alterations. These findings suggest that butanolic fraction of Terminalia arjuna bark has protective effects against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity and may have potential as a cardioprotective agent.

PMID: 18346858 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Protection of arsenic-induced testicular oxidative stress by arjunolic acid.

Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC.

Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, Calcutta, India.

Arsenic-induced tissue damage is a major concern to the human population. An impaired antioxidant defense mechanism followed by oxidative stress is the major cause of arsenic-induced toxicity, which can lead to reproductive failure. The present study was carried out to investigate the preventive role of arjunolic acid, a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna, against arsenic-induced testicular damage in mice. Administration of arsenic (in the form of sodium arsenite, NaAsO(2), at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight) for 2 days significantly decreased the intracellular antioxidant power, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, as well as the levels of cellular metabolites. In addition, arsenic intoxication enhanced testicular arsenic content, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and the level of glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Exposure to arsenic also caused significant degeneration of the seminiferous tubules with necrosis and defoliation of spermatocytes. Pretreatment with arjunolic acid at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 4 days could prevent the arsenic-induced testicular oxidative stress and injury to the histological structures of the testes. Arjunolic acid had free radical scavenging activity in a cell-free system and antioxidant power in vivo. In summary, the results suggest that the chemopreventive role of arjunolic acid against arsenic-induced testicular toxicity may be due to its intrinsic antioxidant property.

PMID: 18339249 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Arjunic acid, a strong free radical scavenger from Terminalia arjuna.

Sun FY, Chen XP, Wang JH, Qin HL, Yang SR, Du GH.

Department of Pharmacology, Tibet Nationalities Institute, Xianyang 712082, China.

This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacities of arjunic acid, an aglycone obtained from the fruit of medicine Terminalia Fruit. Liver microsomes, mitochondria, and red blood cells (RBCs) were prepared from Wistar rats. The antioxidant capacity was determined by the inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide induced RBCs hemolysis, and RBCs autoxidative hemolysis. The free radical scavenging activity was tested by DPPH method and 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluoresc in diacetate (DCFH(2)-DA) assay. Ascorbic acid was chosen as the positive controls. Results showed that arjunic acid was a strong antioxidant and a free radical scavenger, more potent than ascorbic acid, in microsomes lipid peroxidation, DPPH, hydrogen peroxide induced RBCs hemolysis, and (DCFH(2)-DA) assay (p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in the RBCs autoxidative hemolysis assay (p > 0.05).

PMID: 18306462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Taxol production by Pestalotiopsis terminaliae, an endophytic fungus of Terminalia arjuna.

Gangadevi V, Muthumary J.

Terminalia arjuna, is a medicinal plant which possess anticancer activity. An endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis terminaliae was isolated from the fresh, healthy leaves of this medicinal plant was screened for the production of taxol, an anticancer drug in artificial culture medium and analyzed chromatographically and spectrometrically. The amount of taxol produced by the fungus was found to be 211.1 microg/L, thus the fungus can serve as a potential material for fungus engineering to improve the production of taxol. This fungal taxol extracted from the organic extract of this fungal culture, had strong cytotoxic activity towards BT 220, H116, Int 407, HL 251 and HLK 210 human cancer cells in vitro, tested by Apoptotic assay.

PMID: 18254723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cytotoxic agents from Terminalia arjuna.

Saxena M, Faridi U, Mishra R, Gupta MM, Darokar MP, Srivastava SK, Singh D, Luqman S, Khanuja SP.

Analytical Chemistry Division, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P.O. CIMAP, Lucknow, India.

Although a number of chemicals have been isolated from Terminalia arjuna, only a few have been evaluated for their biological significance. As a part of our drug discovery programme for cytotoxic agents from Indian medicinal plants, four novel cytotoxic agents arjunic acid (1), arjungenin (2), arjunetin (3) and arjunoglucoside I (4) were isolated from the bark of T. ARJUNA. Out of the four compounds, arjunic acid (1) was significantly active against the human oral (KB), ovarian (PA 1) and liver (HepG-2 & WRL-68) cancer cell lines. Further, the most active compound arjunic acid was converted into seven semi-synthetic ester derivatives 5 - 11. 2-O-Palmitoyl arjunic acid (6) showed two times more activity, while 2, 3-di-O-acetyl-, 2-O-p-anisoyl-, 2, 3-di-O-benzoyl- and 2, 3-di-O-p-nitrobenzoyl arjunic acid (7 - 10) showed 1.7 - 2.3 times less activity than the cytotoxic drug vinblastine against the liver cancer cell lines HepG-2 and WRL-68 respectively.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 18008199 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn.--a useful drug for cardiovascular disorders.

Dwivedi S.

Preventive Cardiology Group, University College of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, Delhi 110095, India. shridhar.dwivedi@gmail.com

Ancient Indian physicians used the powdered tree bark of Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn. for alleviating "hritshool" (angina) and other cardiovascular conditions. Its stem bark possesses glycosides, large quantities of flavonoids, tannins and minerals. Flavonoids have been detected to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipid lowering effects while glycosides are cardiotonic, thus making Terminalia arjuna unique amongst currently used medicinal plants. In this review an attempt has been made to discuss various aspects of its ethnomedical, pharmacognostical, phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical relevance to cardiovascular conditions. Experimental studies have revealed its bark exerting significant inotropic and hypotensive effect, increasing coronary artery flow and protecting myocardium against ischemic damage. It has also been detected to have mild diuretic, antithrombotic, prostaglandin E(2) enhancing and hypolipidaemic activity. There is ample clinical evidence of its beneficial effect in coronary artery disease alone and along with statin. However, toxicological studies in experimental animals are lacking. Considering its anti-ischemic activity and its potential to correct dyslipidemia, reduce left ventricular mass and increase left ventricular ejection fraction, it is essential to examine the molecular mechanism of its action and its core constituents. Proposition to administer Terminalia arjuna along with statins deserves to be explored in depth for defining its place in the over all management and prevention of coronary artery disease.

Publication Types:

PMID: 17875376 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Arjunolic acid, a triterpenoid saponin, ameliorates arsenic-induced cyto-toxicity in hepatocytes.

Manna P, Sinha M, Pal P, Sil PC.

Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, 93/1 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009, West Bengal, India.

Arsenic is a well-established environmental toxin, which damages various organs of the body. A triterpenoid saponin, arjunolic acid (AA) has been isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna. The present study was conducted to investigate the preventive role of AA against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity in isolated murine hepatocytes. Sodium arsenite (NaAsO(2)) was chosen as the source of arsenic. Incubation of the hepatocytes with NaAsO(2) (1 mM) for 2 h caused reduction in the cell viability and activities of the intracellular enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants. Treatment of NaAsO(2) enhanced lipid peroxidation and also increased the activities of the membrane leakage enzymes. Administration of AA (100 microg/ml) before and with the toxin almost normalized the altered activities of antioxidant indices. AA possesses free radical scavenging activity and could enhance the cellular anti-oxidant capability against NaAsO(2)-induced cyto-toxicity. The cytoprotective activity of AA was found to be comparable to that of a known antioxidant, vitamin C. Experimental results, therefore, suggest that AA protects arsenic-induced cytotoxicity in murine hepatocytes.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17854788 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ecological niche of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii in decaying wood of trunk hollows of living trees in Jabalpur City of Central India.

Grover N, Nawange SR, Naidu J, Singh SM, Sharma A.

Medical Mycology Research Laboratory, Department of Biological Science, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur, MP, India.

Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii were repeatedly isolated from decaying wood of trunk hollows in living trees growing in Jabalpur City in Central India. The isolation of C. gattii has been reported from decayed wood inside trunk hollow of Tamarindus indica (15.6%), Mangifera indica (2.2%), Pithecolobium dulce (12.5%), Syzygium cumini (14%), and one from bark of S. cumini. C. n. var. grubii was isolated from decaying wood debris of T. indica (4.4%), M. indica (13.3%), Terminalia arjuna (25%), S. cumini (2%), Cassia fistula (4.5%), and two from bark of S. cumini. The two varieties never co-occurred in the same hollow. C. gattii and C. n. var. grubii isolates belonged to serotype B and serotype A respectively. The data strongly supported the colonization of the pathogen in decaying wood hollow of all six-tree species. Evidence of this was found by repeated isolation up to 820 days. P. dulce is being reported for the first time as natural habitat of C. gattii and T. arjuna and C. fistula as natural habitat for C. n. var. grubii. M. indica is being reported for the second time as the natural habitat of both varieties (C. n. var. grubii and C. gattii). The population density of these pathogens from decaying wood debris of various tree species ranged between 0.5 x 10(3) cells/g and 6 x 10(5) cells/g. The seasonal variation has been seen in isolation of this yeast. Our result further reinforce the recently emerging evidence that the natural habitat of C. n. var. grubii and C. gattii is more generalized.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17661160 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Phytomedicinal activity of Terminalia arjuna against carbon tetrachloride induced cardiac oxidative stress.

Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC.

Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, 93/1 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009, West Bengal, India.

Chronic and acute overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a positive role in the development of cardiovascular diseases under pathophysiological conditions. However, very little is known about carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced cardiac oxidative stress. The present study was conducted to find out CCl(4) induced oxidative insult in cardiac tissue and the cardioprotective effect of the 70% ethanol extractable active constituents of the bark of Terminalia arjuna (TA) against that stress in mice. Oral administration of CCl(4) at a dose of 1ml/kg body weight for 2 days significantly reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), as well as depleted the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the cardiac tissue. In addition, extent of lipid peroxidation and the level of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were increased under the same experimental conditions. Oral treatment of the active constituents of TA at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight for 7 days prior to CCl(4) administration significantly restored the activities of all antioxidant enzymes as well as increased the level of GSH and decreased the level of lipid peroxidation end products. In addition, FRAP assay showed that the active constituents of TA enhanced the cardiac intracellular antioxidant activity. Histological studies also supported the cardioprotective role of the active constituents. The active constituents-induced protective effect was compared with a known antioxidant, vitamin C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the CCl(4) induced cardiac oxidative stress and cardioprotective action of the active phytoconstituents of Terminalia arjuna against that oxidative insult.

PMID: 17611085 [PubMed - in process]

Ulcer protective effect of Terminalia arjuna on gastric mucosal defensive mechanism in experimental rats.

Devi RS, Narayan S, Vani G, Srinivasan P, Mohan KV, Sabitha KE, Devi CS.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025, Tamil Nadu, India.

The methanol extract of the bark of Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae) (TAE) showed marked antiulcer and ulcer healing activity against 80% ethanol (ETH), diclofenac sodium (DIC) and dexamethasone (DEX) induced ulcer models dose dependently at doses of 100, 400 and 200 mg/kg body weight respectively. Pre-, post and co-administration of TAE offered 100% protection to the gastric mucosa against ETH, DIC and DEX induced ulcers as observed from the ulcer score. Gastric mucosal analysis of DEX induced rats were associated with changes in the levels of protein, protein bound carbohydrate complexes, lipid peroxides (LPO), glutathione (GSH) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) compared with control rats. Co-administration with TAE in DEX rats (DEX + TAE) favorably altered the levels of LPO, GSH and also the activities of SOD and CAT in gastric mucosa, whereas the activities of GPx remained unaltered in all groups. In DEX + TAE rats, the levels of protein and protein bound carbohydrate complexes were increased when compared with DEX rats. The results indicate that the gastroprotective effect of TAE is probably related to its ability to maintain the membrane integrity by its antilipid peroxidative activity that protects the gastric mucosa against oxidative damage and its ability to strengthen the mucosal barrier, the first line of defense against exogenous and endogenous ulcerogenic agents. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17471603 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Beta-thalassemia, hyperlipoproteinemia(a), and metabolic syndrome: its low-cost holistic therapy.

Dwivedi S, Kumar V.

Department of Medicine and Preventive Cardiology, University College of Medical Sciences (University of Delhi) and GTB Hospital, India. shridhar.dwivedi@gmail.com

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is an emerging global health problem. Although studies highlighting its genetic, lipid, and cardiometabolic associations have been described in detail, the exact cause for these associations is not clear. The authors describe, in this study, the case of a patient who, along with his family members, had clinical evidence of MS. In addition, this patient also exhibited beta-thalassemia minor and hyperlipoproteinemia(a). Lipoprotein [Lp(a)] levels diminished significantly following therapy with bark-stem powder of Terminalia arjuna, an ancient remedy recommended for angina pectoris. The co-existence of these conditions, reflecting both a genetic link and a significant reduction in Lp(a) levels amounting to 24.71% following the administration of T. arjuna, prompted the authors to report on this case.

Publication Types:
Case Reports

PMID: 17388772 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Gastroprotective effect of Terminalia arjuna bark on diclofenac sodium induced gastric ulcer.

Devi RS, Narayan S, Vani G, Shyamala Devi CS.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu, India.

AIM: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) on diclofenac sodium induced gastric ulcer in experimental rats. METHODS: Animals were induced for gastric ulcer with diclofenac sodium (DIC) (80mg/kg bodyweight in water, orally) and treated orally with TA in various doses ranging from 100mg/kg bodyweight to 500mg/kg bodyweight. The effective dose was 400mg/kg bodyweight, since this dose elicited a maximum reduction in lesion index. The gastroprotective effect of TA was assessed from volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, pepsin concentration, acid output in gastric juice, the levels of non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH), lipid peroxide (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), and activities of enzymic antioxidants--super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in gastric mucosa. The levels of DNA, protein bound carbohydrate complexes--hexose, hexoseamine, sialic acid, fucose in gastric mucosa and gastric juice and the levels of RNA in gastric mucosa were assessed. The stomach tissues were used for adherent mucus content and also for the histological examination. RESULTS: A significant reduction in lesion index was observed in ulcer induced animals treated with TA (DIC+TA) compared to ulcerated rats (DIC). A significant increase was observed in pH, NP-SH, GSH, enzymic antioxidants, protein bound carbohydrate complexes, adherent mucus content, nucleic acids with a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, pepsin concentration, acid output, LPO levels and MPO activities in DIC+TA rats compared to DIC rats. Histological studies confirmed the gastroprotective activity of TA. CONCLUSION: From the data presented in this study it could be concluded that T. arjuna acts as an gastroprotective agent probably due to its free radical scavenging activity and cytoprotective nature.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17327128 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of Terminalia arjuna stem bark on antioxidant status in liver and kidney of alloxan diabetic rats.

Raghavan B, Kumari SK.

Department of Biochemistry, P.S.G. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641 014. ragavpsg@yahoo.co.in

Free radicals and associated oxidative stress induced by alloxan are implicated in eliciting pathological changes in diabetes mellitus. Terminalia arjuna bark, an indigenous plant used in ayurvedic medicine in India, primarily as a cardiotonic is also used in treating diabetes, anemia, tumors and hypertension. The present study examined the effect of ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) of Terminalia arjuna stem bark in alloxan induced diabetic rats and its lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and nonenzymatic activity was investigated in the liver and kidney tissues. The extract produced significant (P<0.05) reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO). The effect of oral T. arjuna at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight was more than the 250 mg/kg body weight. The extract also causes a significant (P<0.05) increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, reduced glutathione, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, total sulfhydryl groups (TSH) and non protein sulfhydryl groups (NPSH) in liver and kidney of alloxan induced diabetic rats, which clearly shows, the antioxidant property of T. arjuna bark. The result indicates that the extract exhibit the antioxidant activity through correction of oxidative stress and validates the traditional use of this plant in diabetic animals.

PMID: 17051732 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Cardio-protective role of Terminalia arjuna bark extract is possibly mediated through alterations in thyroid hormones.

Parmar HS, Panda S, Jatwa R, Kar A.

School of Life Sciences, DA University, Indore, India.

Terminalia arjuna bark extract is believed to exhibit cardio-protective effects. In the present study we investigated the possible involvement of thyroid hormones in the amelioration of cardiac and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) by a bark extract of the plant in albino rats. While L-thyroxine (L-T4) treatment increased the level of thyroid hormones, heart/body weight ratio as well as cardiac and hepatic lipid peroxidation, simultaneous administration of 21.42 and 42.84 mg/kg of the plant extract decreased the level of thyroid hormones and also the cardiac LPO, suggesting the possible mediation of the drug action through an inhibition in thyroid function. These effects were comparable to a standard antithyroid drug, propyl thiouracil (PTU). When the drug was administered to euthyroid animals, serum concentrations of thyroid hormones were decreased, whereas the hepatic LPO increased indicating a drug induced toxicity in euthyroid subjects. Although a suboptimal dose of the drug was found to be non-toxic to the liver, it appeared to be of no use, as it could neither affect the thyroid functions nor the cardiac lipid peroxidation. Since in euthyroid animals, thyroid hormones were decreased and hepatic LPO was increased, it is suggested that high amounts of this plant extract should not be consumed, as hepatotoxicity as well as hypothyroidism may be caused.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17020158 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna prevents carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic and renal disorders.

Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC.

Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, 93/1, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata-700009, India. prasenjitmanna2005@yahoo.co.in

BACKGROUND: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well-known hepatotoxin and exposure to this chemical is known to induce oxidative stress and causes liver injury by the formation of free radicals. Acute and chronic renal damage are also very common pathophysiologic disturbances caused by CCl4. The present study has been conducted to evaluate the protective role of the aqueous extract of the bark of Termnalia arjuna (TA), an important Indian medicinal plant widely used in the preparation of ayurvedic formulations, on CCl4 induced oxidative stress and resultant dysfunction in the livers and kidneys of mice. METHODS: Animals were pretreated with the aqueous extract of TA (50 mg/kg body weight) for one week and then challenged with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight) in liquid paraffin (1:1, v/v) for 2 days. Serum marker enzymes, namely, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated in the sera of all study groups. Antioxidant status in both the liver and kidney tissues were estimated by determining the activities of the antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); as well as by determining the levels of thiobarbutaric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, free radical scavenging activity of the extract was determined from its DPPH radical quenching ability. RESULTS: Results showed that CCl4 caused a marked rise in serum levels of GPT and ALP. TBARS level was also increased significantly whereas GSH, SOD, CAT and GST levels were decreased in the liver and kidney tissue homogenates of CCl4 treated mice. Aqueous extract of TA successfully prevented the alterations of these effects in the experimental animals. Data also showed that the extract possessed strong free radical scavenging activity comparable to that of vitamin C. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that the aqueous extract of the bark of TA could protect the liver and kidney tissues against CCl4-induced oxidative stress probably by increasing antioxidative defense activities.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17010209 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID: PMC1599753

Evaluation of phytoconstituents of Terminalia arjuna for wound healing activity in rats.

Chaudhari M, Mengi S.

CU Shah College of Pharmacy, SNDT Women's University, Mumbai-400 049, India.

The effect of topical application of phytoconstituents (fraction I, II and III) fractionated from a hydroalcohol extract of the bark of the plant, Terminalia arjuna, was assessed on the healing of rat dermal wounds using in vivo models. The results indicated a statistically significant increase in the tensile strength of the incision wounds and the percent epithelialization of excision wounds compared with control (p < 0.05). However, topical treatment with fraction I, consisting mainly of tannins, was found to demonstrate a maximum increase in the tensile strength of incision wounds. Even with respect to excision wounds, the fastest rate of epithelialization was seen with fraction I. Hexosamine estimation of granulation tissue obtained from excision wounds revealed an increase in the hexosamine content with fraction I compared with the control. In addition, fraction I from the hydroalcohol extract of Arjuna bark possessed antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes but not Candida albicans. These results strongly document the beneficial effects of fraction I, consisting mainly of tannins, of Terminalia arjuna in the acceleration of the healing process. Thus, the present study validates the claim made with respect to the plant as well as corroborating the astringent effect of tannins by drawing the tissues closer together. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 16835874 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Fungal endophyte assemblages from ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal trees.

Tejesvi MV, Mahesh B, Nalini MS, Prakash HS, Kini KR, Subbiah V, Shetty HS.

Department of Studies in Applied Botany and Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Karnataka, India.

Endophytic fungi represent an interesting group of microorganisms associated with the healthy tissues of terrestrial plants. They represent a large reservoir of genetic diversity. Fungal endophytes were isolated from the inner bark segments of ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal tree species, namely Terminalia arjuna, Crataeva magna, Azadirachta indica, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia chebula, and Butea monosperma (11 individual trees), growing in different regions of southern India. Forty-eight fungal species were recovered from 2200 bark segments. Mitosporic fungi represented a major group (61%), with ascomycetes (21%) and sterile mycelia (18%) the next major groups. Species of Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, Myrothecium, Trichoderma, Verticillium, and Chaetomium were frequently isolated. Exclusive fungal taxa were recovered from five of the six plant species considered for the study of endophytic fungi. Rarefaction indices for species richness indicated the highest expected number of species for bark segments were isolated from T. arjuna and A. indica (20 species each) and from C. magna (18 species).

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16699567 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract on apoptosis of human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

Sivalokanathan S, Vijayababu MR, Balasubramanian MP.

Department of Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, Dr. ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai-600 113, Tamil Nadu, India.

AIM: To investigate the effects of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna) extract on human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and its possible role in induction of apoptosis. METHODS: Human hepatoma cells were treated with different concentrations of ethanolic extract of T. arjuna and its cytotoxicity effect was measured by trypan blue exclusion method and lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by light and fluorescence microscopic methods, and DNA fragmentation. The mechanism of apoptosis was studied with expression of p53 and caspase-3 proteins. Glutathione (GSH) content was also measured in HepG2 cells after T. arjuna treatment. RESULTS: T. arjuna inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Apoptotic morphology was observed in HepG2 cells treated with T. arjuna at the concentrations of 60 and 100 mg/L. DNA fragmentation, accumulation of p53 and cleavage of procaspase-3 protein were observed in HepG2 cells after the treatment with T. arjuna. The depletion of GSH was observed in HepG2 cells treated with T. arjuna. CONCLUSION: T. arjuna induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells in vitro. Apoptosis of HepG2 cells may be due to the DNA damage and expression of apoptotic proteins. Depletion of GSH may be involved in the induction of apoptosis of HepG2 cells.

PMID: 16534840 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antioxidant activity of Terminalia arjuna bark extract on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

Sivalokanathan S, Ilayaraja M, Balasubramanian MP.

Department of Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, Dr. ALM Post-Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant nature of ethanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna bark (EETA) on N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male Wistar albino rats. Liver cancer was induced by single intraperitonial injection of DEN (200 mg/kg). After 2 weeks of DEN administration, Phenobarbital (PB) was given to promote the cancer for up to 14 successive weeks. EETA extract (400 mg/kg) was given post-orally for 28 days to hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing rats. After the experimental period, all the animals were sacrificed and serum, liver and kidney samples were collected for further biochemical analysis. The levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) under basal and also in the presence of inducers (H(2)O(2), ascorbate and FeSO(4)) were estimated in serum, liver and kidney of control and experimental animals. Enzymic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and non-enzymic antioxidants like Vitamin C (Vit-C) and Vitamin E (Vit-E) levels were determined in all the groups of animals. A significant increase in LPO levels were observed while the levels of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants were decreased, when subjected to DEN induction. These altered enzyme levels were ameliorated significantly by administration of EETA at the concentration of 400 mg/kg in drug-treated animals. This protective effect of EETA was associated with inhibition of LPO induced by DEN and to maintain the antioxidant enzyme levels. Our results show an antioxidant activity of T. arjuna bark against DEN-induced liver cancer.

PMID: 16328960 [PubMed - in process]

The efficacy of Liv-52 on liver cirrhotic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled first approach.

Huseini HF, Alavian SM, Heshmat R, Heydari MR, Abolmaali K.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medicinal Plants, No. 97, Bozorgmehr St., Ghods St., Enghelab Ave., Tehran, Iran. huseini_fallah@yahoo.com

Cirrhosis is the irreversible sequel of various disorders that damage liver cells permanently over time. Presently, the use of herbal medicines for prevention and control of chronic liver diseases is in the focus of attention for both the physicians and the patients; the reasons for such shift toward the use of herbals include the expensive cost of conventional drugs, adverse drug reactions, and their inefficacy. In the present study, the efficacy of herbal medicine Liv-52 (consisting of Mandur basma, Tamarix gallica and herbal extracts of Capparis spinosa, Cichorium intybus, Solanum nigrum, Terminalia arjuna and Achillea millefolium) on liver cirrhosis outcomes was compared with the placebo for 6 months in 36 cirrhotic patients referred to Tehran Hepatic Center. The outcome measures included child-pugh score, ascites, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total billirubin, albumin, prothrombin time, platelet and white blood cells counts. The indices were recorded in all patients before and after 6 months of drug or placebo treatment. The results demonstrated that the patients treated with Liv-52 for 6 months had significantly better child-pugh score, decreased ascites, decreased serum ALT and AST. In placebo administered patients all the clinical parameters recorded at beginning of the study were not significantly different than after 6 months. We conclude that Liv-52 possess hepatoprotective effect in cirrhotic patients. This protective effect of Liv-52 can be attributed to the diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and immunomodulating properties of the component herbs.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16194047 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants.

Bajpai M, Pande A, Tewari SK, Prakash D.

Nutraceutical Chemistry, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

To identify promising sources of antioxidants, some food and medicinal plants were studied for total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. The leaves, bark and fruits of Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia muelleri, the leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, and the seeds of Syzygium cumini were found to have high total phenolic contents (72.0-167.2 mg/g) and high antioxidant activity (69.6-90.6%). Leaves of Eucalyptusglobulus were a rich source of rutin, Moringa oleifera for kaempferol, aerial parts of Centella asiatica for quercetin, fruits of T. bellerica and T. chebula for gallic acid, and bark of T. arjuna, leaves and fruits of T. bellerica and bark, leaves and fruits of T. muelleri for ellagic acid.

PMID: 16096138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of oleanane triterpenoids from Terminalia arjuna--a cardioprotective drug on the process of respiratory oxyburst.

Pawar RS, Bhutani KK.

Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sect. 67, S.A.S. Nagar, Phase X, (Mohali), Punjab, India.

The oleanane triterpenes arjunic acid, arjungenin and their glucosides, arjunetin and arjunglucoside II, were isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna. Arjungenin and its glucoside exhibited a moderate free radical scavenging activity while all the compounds showed no effect on the superoxide release from PMN cells. Further arjungenin also exhibited greater inhibitory action on the hypochlorous acid production from human neutrophils.

PMID: 15957375 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Role of Terminalia arjuna in ischaemic mitral regurgitation.

Dwivedi S, Aggarwal A, Agarwal MP, Rajpal S.

The bark powder of Terminalia arjuna, an indigenous plant has been found to have antianginal, decongestive and hypolipidemic effect. We planned a study to evaluate the role of T. arjuna in ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). 40 patients with fresh AMI showing IMR were randomly divided into 2 groups of 20 each. They were given placebo or 500 mg of T. arjuna in addition to anti-ischemic treatment. After 1 and 3 months of follow up, patients receiving adjuvant T. arjuna showed significant decrease in IMR, improvement in E/A ratio and considerable reduction in anginal frequency.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 15837100 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Efficacy of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

Sivalokanathan S, Ilayaraja M, Balasubramanian MP.

Department of Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, Dr. ALM Post-Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India.

The effect of ethanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna bark on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes of N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar albino rats were studied. The plasma and liver glycolytic enzymes such as hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase, aldolase were significantly increased in cancer induced animals while glyconeogenic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase was decreased. These enzymes were reverted significantly to near normal range in treated animals after oral administration of T. arjuna for 28 days. The modulation of the enzymes constitute the depletion of energy metabolism leads to inhibition of cancer growth. This inhibitory activity may be due to the anticancer activity of constituents present in the ethanolic extract of T. arjuna.

PMID: 15816414 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Casuarinin from the bark of Terminalia arjuna induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells.

Kuo PL, Hsu YL, Lin TC, Lin LT, Chang JK, Lin CC.

Department of Biotechnology, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan.

Casuarinin, a hydrolyzable tannin isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna L. (Combretaceae), was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. The results showed that casuarinin inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 by blocking cell cycle progression in the G0/G1 phase and inducing apoptosis. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that casuarinin increased the expression of p21/WAF1 concomitantly as the MCF-7 cells underwent G0/G1 arrest. An enhancement in Fas/APO-1 and its two forms of ligands, membrane-bound Fas ligand (mFasL) and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL), might be responsible for the apoptotic effect induced by casuarinin. Our study reports here for the first time that the induction of p21/WAF1 and the activity of Fas/Fas ligand apoptotic system may participate in the antiproliferative activity of casuarinin in MCF-7 cells.

PMID: 15770544 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells by casuarinin from the bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn.

Kuo PL, Hsu YL, Lin TC, Chang JK, Lin CC.

Department of Biotechnology, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan.

Casuarinin, a hydrolyzable tannin isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn. (Combretaceae), inhibits human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells by blocking cell cycle progression in the G0/G1 phase and inducing apoptosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the G0/G1 phase arrest is due to p53-dependent induction of p21/WAF1. An enhancement in Fas/APO-1 and the two forms of Fas ligand (FasL), membrane-bound FasL and soluble FasL, might be responsible for the apoptotic effect induced by casuarinin. Our study reports here for the first time that the induction of p53 and the activity of the Fas/FasL apoptotic system may participate in the antiproliferative activity of casuarinin in A549 cells.

PMID: 15746577 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) protects rabbit heart against ischemic-reperfusion injury: role of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein.

Gauthaman K, Banerjee SK, Dinda AK, Ghosh CC, Maulik SK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical sciences, New Delhi 110029, India.

The bark of Terminalia arjuna Roxb. (TA) is widely recommended for the treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Indian system of medicine. Oral administration of TA for 12 weeks in rabbits caused augmentation of myocardial antioxidants; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) along with induction of heat shock protein72 (HSP72). In vivo ischemic-reperfusion injury induced oxidative stress, tissue injury of heart and haemodynamic effects were prevented in the TA treated rabbit hearts. The study provides scientific basis for the putative therapeutic effect of TA in ischemic heart disease.

PMID: 15619558 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Casuarinin protects cultured MDCK cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and DNA oxidative damage.

Chen CH, Liu TZ, Kuo TC, Lu FJ, Chen YC, Chang-Chien YW, Lin CC.

Department of Medical Technology, Fooyin University, Ta-Liao, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan, ROC.

Casuarinin has been shown to be an antioxidant in acellular experiments. This study was designed to assess the ability of casuarinin, extracted from Terminalia arjuna, to protect cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells against H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. A comparison with trolox, a hydrosoluble vitamin E analogue was performed. MDCK cells were pretreated with casuarinin or trolox for 1 h, then exposed to H2O2. After incubation with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 1 h, casuarinin caused a decrease in intracellular peroxide production as shown by dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence in a concentration-dependent manner. After 3 h exposure to 8 mM H2O2, the percentage of intracellular glutathione (GSH)-negative cells was reduced in the casuarinin-treated group. Addition of 32mM H2O2 to MDCK cells for 3 h induced an increase in the percentage of cells containing 8-oxoguanine but the level of such cells declined in casuarinin-treated cells. These results show that casuarinin is more effective against H2O2-induced oxidative damage than trolox. The data suggest that casuarinin attenuates H2O2-induced oxidative stress, decreases DNA oxidative damage and prevents the depletion of intracellular GSH in MDCK cells.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15549656 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Induction of biomolecules in mature leaves of Terminalia arjuna due to feeding of Antheraea mylitta Drury.

Abraham G, Thomas G, Babu CR.

Department of Botany, Allahabad Agriculture Institute-Deemed University, Allahabad, India. gabraham1@rediffmail.com

Terminalia arjuna is an important food plant of the tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury. In this study, we investigated the induction of biomolecules in mature leaves of these plants subjected to insect feeding. Increase in total tannin content, lipid peroxidation, and trypsin inhibitor activity have been observed in mature leaves damaged by the insects. The growth rate of Vth instar larvae of A. mylitta fed on previously damaged foliage reduced by 87.1%. Induction of biomolecules for defense mechanisms in relation to herbivore damage has been discussed.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15523561 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.

Rani P, Khullar N.

Department of Biotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014, India.

Screening was done of some plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases. Fifty four plant extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Strong antibacterial activity was shown by the methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Salmalia malabarica, Punica granatum, Myristica fragrans, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia arjuna and Triphal (mixture of Emblica of fi cinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica). Moderate antimicrobial activity was shown by Picorhiza kurroa, Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Cichorium intybus, Embelia ribes, Solanum nigrum, Carum copticum, Apium graveolens, Ocimum sanctum, Peucedanum graveolens and Butea monosperma.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15476301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Isolation of colour components from native dye-bearing plants in northeastern India.

Bhuyan R, Saikia CN.

Regional Research Laboratory, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Jorhat 785006, India.

Recently dyes derived from natural sources have emerged as important alternatives to synthetic dyes. A study was initiated in the year 2000 at the RRL (CSIR), Jorhat to extract dyes from parts of five different plant species indigenous to northeastern India. The colour components responsible for dyeing were isolated and their chemical constituents were established based on chemical and spectroscopic investigations. The principal colour components from the species Morinda angustifolia Roxb., Rubia cordifolia Linn. and Tectona grandis Linn. were found to contain mainly anthraquinone moieties in their molecules. Those from the species Mimusops elengi Linn. and Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. contained flavonoid moieties in their molecules. The absorption of dye (%) on fibres increased with increasing concentrations of dye in the dye-bath. Maximum absorption of dyes on fibres was obtained at 3% concentration of dyes obtained from R. cordfolia (35.350%), M. angustifolia (31.580%) and T. grandis (25.888%) and at 4% concentration of the dyes from M. elengi (31.917%) and T. arjuna (12.246%). The K/S values were found to increase with the increase in concentration of mordants. The colour co-ordinates of dyed samples were found to lie in the yellow-red quadrant of the colour space diagram. The dyes obtained from the native plants may be alternative sources to synthetic dyes for the dyeing of natural silk and cotton.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15474939 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Terminalia arjuna reverses impaired endothelial function in chronic smokers.

Bharani A, Ahirwar LK, Jain N.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College and Maharaja Yashwant Rao Hospital, Indore. tanmaybharani@eth.net

BACKGROUND: Smoking, largely through increased oxidative stress, causes endothelial dysfunction which is an early key event in atherosclerosis. Smoking cessation and antioxidant vitamin therapy are shown to have beneficial role by restoring altered endothelial physiology. The present study was aimed to determine whether Terminalia arjuna, an Indian medicinal plant with potent antioxidant constituents, would improve endothelial dysfunction in smokers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen healthy male smokers (age 28.16+/-9.45 years) and equal number of age-matched non-smoker controls participated in the study. The baseline brachial artery reactivity studies were performed using high frequency ultrasound according to standard protocol under identical conditions to determine endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated dilation and endothelium-independent nitroglycerine-mediated dilation. The two groups were matched regarding age, body mass index, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, mean resting vessel diameters and post-occlusion flow velocities (all p=NS). While flow-mediated dilation was significantly impaired amongst smokers compared to controls (4.71+/-2.22 v. 11.75+/-5.94%, p <0.005), the nitroglycerine-mediated dilation was similar in the two groups (20.35+/-3.89 v. 19.68+/-3.74%, p=NS). Subsequently the smokers were given Terminalia arjuna (500 mg q8h) or matching placebo randomly in a double blind cross-over design for two weeks each, followed by repetition of brachial artery reactivity studies to determine various parameters including flow-mediated dilation after each period. There was no significant difference as regards vessel diameter and flow velocities between the two therapies. However, the flow-mediated dilation showed significant improvement from baseline values after Terrminalia arjuna therapy but not with placebo (9.31+/-3.74 v. 5.17+/-2.42%, p <0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Smokers have impaired endothelium-dependent but normal endothelium-independent vasodilation as determined by brachial artery reactivity studies. Further, Terrminalia arjuna therapy for two weeks leads to significant regression of this endothelial abnormality amongst smokers.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 15377133 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Antigenotoxic properties of Terminalia arjuna bark extracts.

Scassellati-Sforzolini G, Villarini LM, Moretti LM, Marcarelli LM, Pasquini R, Fatigoni C, Kaur LS, Kumar S, Grover IS.

Department of Hygiene, University of Perugia, Italy.

Compounds possessing antimutagenic properties (polyphenols, tannins, vitamins, etc.) have been identified in fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants. Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae), a tropical woody tree occurring throughout India and known locally as Kumbuk, is a medicinal plant rich in tannins and triterpenes that is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine as a cardiac tonic. The aim of the present collaborative work was to test six solvent extracts from the bark of Terminalia arjuna for antigenotoxic activity using in vitro short-term tests. Terminalia arjuna extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using acetone, methanol, methanol + HCl, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether. The antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the inhibition of genotoxicity of the directacting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) using the "comet" assay and the micronucleus (MN) test. Human peripheral blood leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the six extracts (from 5 to 100 microg/ mL) and with 4NQO (1 and 2 microg/mL, for the "comet" assay and MN test, respectively). Each extract/4NQO combination was tested twice; in each experiment, positive control (4NQO alone) and negative control (1% DMSO) were set. "Comet" assay results showed that acetone and methanol extracts were highly effective in reducing the DNA damage caused by 4NQO, whereas the acidic methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether extracts showed less marked or no antigenotoxic activity. In the MN test, a decrease in 4NQO genotoxicity was observed by testing this mutagen in the presence of acetone, methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts, even though the extent of inhibition was not always statistically significant.

PMID: 15281223 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Anti-inflammatory properties of BHUx, a polyherbal formulation to prevent atherosclerosis.

Tripathi YB, Reddy MM, Pandey RS, Subhashini J, Tiwari OP, Singh BK, Reddanna P.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India. Yamini30@sify.com

BHUx is a polyherbal formulation consisting of water-soluble fractions of five medicinal plants (Commiphora mukul, Terminalia arjuna, Boswellia serrata, Semecarpus anacardium and Strychnos nux vomica). The present study was undertaken to evaluate its antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. BHUx, standardized by HPLC fingerprinting and filtered through 0.2 microm filter paper, was employed for different studies under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Under in vivo conditions, BHUx significantly reduced inflammation in the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model of inflammation, suggesting its anti-inflammatory properties. In order to test the mechanism of action of BHUx, further in vitro studies were undertaken on cumene-hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation (CHP) in liver homogenate, LPS-induced NO production in peritoneal macrophages and on key enzymes of arachidonic acid cascade, involved in the mediation of inflammation. Under the conditions, BHUx showed concentration-dependent inhibition of CHP-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate, suggesting its antioxidant properties. Similarly the potent anti-inflammatory effects of BHUx are evident by (a) preferential inhibition of COX-2 (IC50 for COX-2 = 80 microg/ml and IC50 for COX-1 = 169 microg/ml), (b) low ratios in the IC50 values of COX-2/COX-1 (0.47), (c) decreased production of NO in LPS-induced peritoneal macrophages and (d) inhibition of 5-LOX (IC50 = 795 microg/ml). BHUx also showed a preference for inhibiting 15-lipoxygenase (IC50 = 44 microg/ml), a key enzyme implicated in LDL oxidation. These studies suggest that BHUx is acting mainly at three levels, i.e., as a potent natural antioxidant, by reduction of key inflammatory mediators of arachidonic acid cascade and by preventing 15-LOX-mediated LDL oxidations, to prevent atherosclerosis.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15265316 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Arjunetin from Terminalia arjuna as an insect feeding-deterrent and growth inhibitor.

Singh DV, Gupta MM, Tripathi AK, Prajapati V, Kumar S.

Analytical Testing Laboratory, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India.

Crude ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae) and its three compounds namely arjunic acid, arjungenin and arjunetin were evaluated for antifeedant, growth inhibitory and oviposition-deterrent activities against a lepidopterous insect Spilarctia obliqua. The compound arjunetin showed highest growth inhibitory and feeding-deterrent properties with a growth inhibition (GI(50)) and feeding-inhibition (FD(50)) of 188.5 and 287.1 micro g/g diet respectively. Oviposition bioassays indicated no oviposition-deterrence in any of the compounds tested. The structure-activity relationship study indicated the importance of a glycosidation linkage in arjunetin. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 15022165 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A novel naphthanol glycoside from Terminalia arjuna with antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibitory activities.

Ali A, Kaur G, Hayat K, Ali M, Ather M.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India.

A novel naphthanol glycoside, arjunaphthanoloside (1), was isolated from the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna and its structure was established as 2,3,6,7,8,9-hexahydroxynaphthalene-2-O-alpha-L(-)-rhamnoside by means of spectroscopic and chemical methods. Compound 1 showed potent antioxidant activity and inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat peritoneal macrophages.

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14703977 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Possible mechanisms of hypotension produced 70% alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna (L.) in anaesthetized dogs.

Nammi S, Gudavalli R, Babu BS, Lodagala DS, Boini KM.

Pharmacology Division, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA. nammi@rediffmail.com

BACKGROUND: The bark of Terminalia arjuna L. (Combretaceae) is used in Ayurveda since ancient times for the treatment of cardiac disorders. Previous laboratory investigations have demonstrated the use of the bark in cardiovascular complications. The present study was aimed to find the effect of 70% alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna on anaesthetized dog blood pressure and probable site of action. METHODS: Six dogs were anaesthetized with intraperitoneal injection of thiopental sodium and the blood pressure of each dog (n = 6) was measured from the left common carotid artery connected to a mercury manometer on kymograph. The femoral vein was cannulated for administration of drug solutions. The extract of T. arjuna (dissolved in propylene glycol) in the dose range of 5 to 15 mg/kg were administered intravenously in a pilot study and the dose (6 mg/kg) which produced appreciable hypotension was selected for further studies. RESULTS: Intravenous administration of T. arjuna produced dose-dependent hypotension in anaesthetized dogs. The hypotension produced by 6 mg/kg dose of the extract was blocked by propranolol but not by atropine or mepyramine maleate. This indicates that muscarinic or histaminergic mechanisms are not likely to be involved in the hypotension produced by the extract. The blockade by propranolol of the hypotension produced by T. arjuna indicates that the extract might contain active compound(s) possessing adrenergic beta2-receptor agonist action and/or that act directly on the heart muscle. CONCLUSION: The results indicated the likely involvement of peripheral mechanism for hypotension produced by the 70% alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna and lends support for the claims of its traditional usage in cardiovascular disorders.

PMID: 14561229 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID: PMC270057

Cardioprotective effect of the alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna bark in an in vivo model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury.

Karthikeyan K, Bai BR, Gauthaman K, Sathish KS, Devaraj SN.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, India.

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic administration of the alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna (TAAE) bark on isoproterenol induced myocardial injury. The TAAE was administered orally to Wistar albino rats (150-200 g) in three different doses, by gastric gavage [3.4 mg/kg: (T1), 6.75 mg/kg: (T2) and 9.75 mg/kg: (T3)] 6 days/week for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, all the animals, except the normal untreated rats that served as the control group, were administered isoproterenol (ISO) 85 mg/kg, S.C., for two consecutive days to induce in vivo myocardial injury. After 48 hours rats were anaesthetized with anaesthetic ether, then sacrificed and the hearts were harvested for biochemical and histological studies. A significant rise in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and loss of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (suggestive of increased oxidative stress) occurred in the hearts subjected to in vivo myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. The 6.75 mg/kg TAAE treatment group (baseline) shows a significant increase in myocardial TBARS as well as endogenous antioxidants (GSH, SOD, and catalase), but not in the other treatment groups. In in vivo ischemic reperfusion injury of the TAAE treated rats there was a significant decrease in TBARS in all the groups. In 6.75 mg/kg treatment group, a significant rise in the levels of GSH, SOD and catalase were observed, and it shows better recovery profile than the other groups subjected to in vivo ischemic reperfusion injury. In histological studies, all the groups, except the isoproterenol treated group, showed preserved myocardium. The present study demonstrates that the 6.75 mg/kg TAAE augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of the rat heart and also prevents the myocardium from isoproterenol induced myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury.

PMID: 13679240 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Antiatherogenic effect of Caps HT2, a herbal Ayurvedic medicine formulation.

Mary NK, Babu BH, Padikkala J.

Amala Cancer Research Centre, Thrissur, Kerala, India.

The antiatherogenic effect of a herbal formulation, Caps HT2, was evaluated as antioxidant, anticoagulant, platelet antiaggregatory, lipoprotein lipase releasing, anti-inflammatory and hypolipidaemic activity in rats. The formulation contained the methanolic extracts of selected parts of plants, Commiphora mukul, Allium sativum, Plumbago indica, Semecarpus anacardium, Hemidesmus indicus, Terminalia arjuna, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum. The formulation, Caps HT2 was found to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals; the IC50 required being 55.0 and 610.0 microg/ml respectively. The lipid peroxidation was found inhibited (50%) by 48.5 microg/ml of Caps HT2. The intravenous administration of the formulation (5 mg/kg) delayed the plasma recalcification time in rabbits and enhanced the release of lipoprotein lipase enzyme significantly (p < 0.001). The formulation also inhibited ADP induced platelet aggregation in vitro, which was comparable to commercial heparin. The anti-inflammatory action of the formulation was significant (p < 0.001) with acute and chronic inflammations induced by carrageenan and formalin respectively in rats. The hypolipidaemic effect of Caps HT2 was significant (p < 0.001) with the administration of the formulation, in diet-induced hyperlipidaemia of rats for a period of 30 days. Oral administration of the formulation, Caps HT2 (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg) significantly raised HDL cholesterol levels. The atherogenic index and the reduction in body weight were significant indicating the effectiveness against hyperlipidaemia and obesity. All these results revealed the therapeutic potential of Caps HT2 against vascular intimal damage and atherogenesis leading to various types of cardiovascular problems.

PMID: 13678230 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Comparative effect of oral administration and topical application of alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna bark on incision and excision wounds in rats.

Rane MM, Mengi SA.

CU Shah College of Pharmacy, SNDT Women's University, Santacruz-west, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 049, India.

The effects of 50% ethanolic extract of the bark Terminalia arjuna and tannins isolated from the bark were studied for wound healing activity in incision and excision wound models, after oral or topical application in form of a hydrogel. The findings revealed a statistically significant increase in the tensile strength of the incision wounds and increase in the percent reduction in wound size of excision wounds as compared to control. However, the topical treatment with tannins was found to be superior in both incision and excision wound studies. The estimated increase in hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue of the excision wounds indicated rapid collagen turnover thus, leading to rapid healing of the wounds.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 12946717 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Terminoside A, a new triterpene glycoside from the bark of Terminalia arjuna inhibits nitric oxide production in murine macrophages.

Ali A, Kaur G, Hamid H, Abdullah T, Ali M, Niwa M, Alam MS.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hamdard University, New Delhi 110 062, India.

Terminoside A (1), a new oleanane-type triterpene was isolated from the acetone fraction of the ethanolic extract of stem bark of Terminalia arjuna. The structure was established as olean-1alpha,3beta,22beta-triol-12-en-28-oic acid-3beta-D-glucopyranoside. On the basis of spectral data and chemical reactions, terminoside A, potently inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12765198 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Evaluation of wound healing activity of some herbal formulations.

Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee K, Rajesh Kumar M, Pal M, Saha BP.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700032, India.

The wound healing activity of two herbal formulations (Himax ointment and lotion) containing Indradaru extract, i.e. Arjuna bark (Terminalia arjuna, Family-Combretaceae), extract was evaluated for its wound healing potential in two types of wound models in rats (i) excision wound model and (ii) incision wound model. Both the formulations responded significantly in both the wound models tested. The results were also comparable to that of the standard drug nitrofurazone used as a standard drug for comparison in this present investigation. The results were also comparable in terms of wound contracting ability, epithelization period, tensile strength and regeneration of tissues at the wound area. Thus, this investigation con fi rms the use of the Himax ointment and lotion containing Terminalia arjuna extract as a wound-healing agent as known from folklore medicine. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12672158 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Micropropagation of Terminalia arjuna Roxb. from cotyledonary nodes.

Pandey S, Jaiswal VS.

Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India.

Cotyledonary node explants excised from 21 day old seedlings of T. arjuna produced multiple shoots when cultured on full strength MS or modified MS (1/2 strength major salts and Fe-EDTA) medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.1-1.0 mg/l) of BAP. Maximum 8.9 shoots/explant could be recorded after 30 days of inoculation on modified MS medium supplemented with BAP (0.5 mg/l). A proliferating shoot culture was established by reculturing the original cotyledonary nodes (2-3 times) on shoot multiplication medium after each harvest of the newly formed shoots. Shoots (each having 2-3 nodes/shoot) thus obtained were also used as a source of nodal explant that gave rise to 1-2 shoots when cultured on modified MS+BAP (0.5 mg/l) medium. Thus, 45-55 shoots could be obtained after 60 days of culture initiation from a single cotyledonary node. About 88% shoots rooted well after 15 hr pulse treatment with IBA (1 mg/l) in liquid MS medium followed by transfer to modified MS medium without IBA. About 80% of these plantlets were successfully acclimatized in plastic pots containing sand and soil mixture and 70% plantlets transferred in the field those survived even after 6 months of transplantation.

PMID: 12597029 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Antimutagenic activities of acetone and methanol fractions of Terminalia arjuna.

Kaur K, Arora S, Kumar S, Nagpal A.

Department of Botanical Land Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India. kamal_rajjput@hotmail.com

The antimutagenic effect of benzene, chloroform, acetone and methanol fractions from Terminalia arjuna, a well-known medicinal plant, was determined against Acid Black dye, 2-aminofluorene (2AF) and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) in TA98 Frameshift mutagen tester strain of Salmonella typhimurium. Among the different fractions, the antimutagenic effect of acetone and methanol fractions was more than that observed with other fractions. Co-incubation and pre-incubation modes of experimentation did not show much difference in the antimutagenic activity of the extracts. Moreover, these fractions inhibited the S9-dependent mutagens, 2AF and Acid Black dye more effectively than the direct-acting mutagens. Studies are under way to isolate and elucidate the nature of the antimutagenic factor in acetone and methanol fractions.

PMID: 12387312 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antiherpes simplex virus type 2 activity of casuarinin from the bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn.

Cheng HY, Lin CC, Lin TC.

Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih Chuan 1st Road, Taiwan, ROC.

Casuarinin, a hydrolyzable tannin isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn. (Combretaceae), was investigated for its antiviral activity on herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro. Results showed that the IC(50) of casuarinin in XTT and plaque reduction assays were 3.6+/-0.9 and 1.5+/-0.2 microM, respectively. The 50% cytotoxic concentration for cell growth (CC(50)) was 89+/-1 microM. Thus, the selectivity index (SI) (ratio of CC(50) to IC(50)) of casuarinin was 25 and 59 for XTT and plaque reduction assays, respectively. Casuarinin continued to exhibit antiviral activity even added 12 h after infection. During the attachment assay, casuarinin was shown to prevent the attachment of HSV-2 to cells. Furthermore, casuarinin also exhibited an activity in inhibiting the viral penetration. Interestingly, casuarinin was virucidal at a concentration of 25 microM, reducing viral titers up to 100,000-fold. This study concludes that casuarinin possesses anti-herpesvirus activity in inhibiting viral attachment and penetration, and also disturbing the late event(s) of infection.

PMID: 12206882 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Quantitative determination of oleane derivatives in Terminalia arjuna by high performance thin layer chromatography.

Singh DV, Verma RK, Gupta MM, Kumar S.

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow 226 015, India.

A simple, precise and rapid high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of five oleane derivatives, namely, arjunic acid, arjunolic acid, arjungenin, arjunetin and arjunglucoside I from stem bark extract of Terminalia arjuna. The isolation and separation of these compounds was carried out on 60F254 layers eluted with chloroform:methanol (90:10), and the analytes were visualised through colour development with vanillin in concentrated sulphuric acid:ethanol. Scanning and quantification of the spots at 640 nm showed good recoveries in the range 96.40-101.7%.

PMID: 12184173 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Efficacy of Terminalia arjuna in chronic stable angina: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study comparing Terminalia arjuna with isosorbide mononitrate.

Bharani A, Ganguli A, Mathur LK, Jamra Y, Raman PG.

Department of Medicine, MGM Medical College and MY Hospital, Indore, MP. tanmaybharani@im.eth.net

BACKGROUND: Terminalia arjuna, an Indian medicinal plant, has been reported to have beneficial effects in patients with ischemic heart disease in a number of small, open studies. The need for a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with adequate sample size has long been felt. The bark extract (IPC-53) contains acids (arjunic acid, terminic acid), glycosides (arjunetin arjunosides I-IV), strong antioxidants (flavones, tannins, oligomeric proanthocyanidins), minerals. etc. and exhibits antifailure and anti-ischemic properties. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-eight males with chronic stable angina (NYHA class II-III) with evidence of provocable ischemia on treadmill exercise test received Terminalia arjuna (500 mg 8 hourly), isosorbide mononitrate (40 mg/daily) or a matching placebo for one week each, separated by a wash-out period of at least three days in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. They underwent clinical, biochemical and treadmill exercise evaluation at the end of each therapy which were compared during the three therapy periods. Terminalia arjuna therapy was associated with significant decrease in the frequency of angina and need for isosorbide dinitrate (5.69+/-6.91 mg/week v. 18.22+/-9.29 mg/week during placebo therapy, p<0.005). The treadmill exercise test parameters improved significantly during therapy with Terminalia arjuna compared to those with placebo. The total duration of exercise increased (6.14+/-2.51 min v. 4.76+/-2.38 min, p<0.005), maximal ST depression during the longest equivalent stages of submaximal exercise decreased (1.41+/-0.55 mm v. 2.21+/-0.56 mm, p<0.005), time to recovery decreased (6.49+/-2.37 min v. 9.27+/-3.39 min, p<0.005) and higher double products were achieved (25.75+/-4.81x10(3) v. 23.11+/-4.83x10(3), p<0.005) during Terminalia arjuna therapy. Similar improvements in clinical and treadmill exercise test parameters were observed with isosorbide mononitrate compared to placebo therapy. No significant differences were observed in clinical or treadmill exercise test parameters when Terminalia arjuna and isosorbide mononitrate therapies were compared. No significant untoward effects were reported during Terminalia arjuna therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Terminalia arjuna bark extract, 500 mg 8 hourly, given to patients with stable angina with provocable ischemia on treadmill exercise, led to improvement in clinical and treadmill exercise parameters as compared to placebo therapy. These benefits were similar to those observed with isosorbide mononitrate (40 mg/day) therapy and the extract was well tolerated. Limitations of this study include applicability of the results to only men with chronic stable angina but not necessarily to women, as they were not studied.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 12086380 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell growth of human tumor cell lines.

Khan MT, Lampronti I, Martello D, Bianchi N, Jabbar S, Choudhuri MS, Datta BK, Gambari R.

Pharmacology Research Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Science and Technology Chittagong, Bangladesh.

In this study we compared the in vitro antiproliferative activity of extracts from medicinal plants toward human tumor cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Extracts from Emblica officinalis were the most active in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation, after comparison to those from Terminalia arjuna, Aphanamixis polystachya, Oroxylum indicum, Cuscuta reflexa, Aegle marmelos, Saraca asoka, Rumex maritimus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Red Sandalwood. Emblica officinalis extracts have been studied previously, due to their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medicinal activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses allowed to identify pyrogallol as the common compound present both in unfractionated and n-butanol fraction of Emblica officinalis extracts. Antiproliferative effects of pyrogallol were therefore determined on human tumor cell lines thus identifying pyrogallol as an active component of Emblica officinalis extracts.

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12063567 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

RP-LC determination of oleane derivatives in Terminalia arjuna.

Singh DV, Verma RK, Singh SC, Gupta MM.

Analytical Biophysical Chemistry Division, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P.O.-CIMAP, Lucknow 226 015, India.

A rapid sensitive and reproductive reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method with photo diode arrray detection is described for the simultaneous quantification of major oleane derivatives: arjunic acid (4), arjunolic acid (3), arjungenin (2) and arjunetin (1) in Terminalia arjuna extract. The method involves the use of a Waters Spherisorb S10 ODS2 column (250 x 4.6 mm, I.D., 10 microm) and binary gradient mobile phase profile. The various other aspects of analysis viz. Extraction efficiency, peak purity and similarity were validated using a photo diode array detector.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12008123 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Modulatory effect of phenolic fractions of Terminalia arjuna on the mutagenicity in Ames assay.

Kaur K, Arora S, Kumar S, Nagpal A.

Department of Botanical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India. kamal_rajput@usa.net

We determined the antimutagenicity of phenolic fractions of Terminalia arjuna (soluble and insoluble in chloroform) against two direct-acting mutagens, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) and sodium azide, and against the S9-dependent mutagen 2-aminofluorene (2AF), in TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium. We found that the phenolic fractions of T. arjuna inhibited revertants induced by the S9-dependent mutagen more remarkably than the direct-acting mutagens. Furthermore, the phenolic fractions showed maximum inhibition of 98% and 101.55%, respectively, in the pre-incubation mode of treatment against the mutations induced by 2AF. Overall, the fractions inhibited the revertants induced by S9-dependent mutagens more effectively than those induced by direct-acting mutagens. The percentage of inhibition was higher in the pre-incubation than with direct acting mutagens. The fraction insoluble in chloroform showed more inhibition than the soluble one, which corresponds to a higher polyphenol content in the insoluble fraction than in the soluble extract.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11934012 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

In vitro protective effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extracts against the 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide genotoxicity.

Pasquini R, Scassellati-Sforzolini G, Villarini M, Moretti M, Marcarelli M, Fatigoni C, Kaur S, Kumar S, Grover IS.

Department of Hygiene, University of Perugia, Italy. pasquini@unipg.it

We determined the antimutagenic potential of chloroform, acetone, methanol, methanol+HCl, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate extracts of Terminalia arjuna bark against the model mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO) using the Salmonella/microsome, comet, and micronucleus (MN) tests. Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain and human peripheral white blood cells were coincubated with various concentrations (from 5 to 500 microg) of the six extracts and 4-NQO (from 0.05 to 2 microg). We found that the 4-NQO mutagenicity was inhibited by more than 70% in the Salmonella/microsome test at the highest nontoxic extract dose of ethyl acetate (50 microg/plate), chloroform (100 microg/plate), acetone, (100 microg/plate), and methanol (500 microg/plate). A less marked antimutagenicity activity (inhibition of about 40-45%) was observed for the acidic methanol and diethyl ether extracts. The comet assay showed that acetone extract (100 microg/mL) was more effective in reducing the DNA damage caused by 4-NQO (ca. 90%), whereas the chloroform, ethyl acetate, and diethyl ether extracts were cytotoxic. In the MN test, the decrease in 4-NQO clastogenicity was observed by testing the mutagen especially with chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts (inhibition about 40-45%). The acetone and methanol extracts showed a less marked activity (33% and 37%, respectively). The results of the present study suggest that T. arjuna bark contains some nonpolar as well as polar compounds with antimutagenic activity against 4-NQO. Several explanations can be suggested, but further investigations are necessary to definitely identify the active compounds.

PMID: 11934011 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Experimental myocardial necrosis in rats: role of arjunolic acid on platelet aggregation, coagulation and antioxidant status.

Sumitra M, Manikandan P, Kumar DA, Arutselvan N, Balakrishna K, Manohar BM, Puvanakrishnan R.

Department of Biotechnology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai, India.

Arjunolic acid, a new triterpene and a potent principle from the bark of Terminalia arjuna, has been shown to provide significant cardiac protection in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in rats. To further explore the mechanism of action of arjunolic acid, antiplatelet activity, anticoagulant assays, electrocardiographic changes, serum marker enzymes, antioxidant status, lipid peroxide and myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been measured and the results are compared with a potent cardioprotective drug, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Administration of isoproterenol produces electrocardiographic changes such as decreased R amplitude and increased ST segment elevation and has resulted in an increase in serum marker enzyme levels as well as a decrease in enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels. Arjunolic acid at an effective dosage of 15 mg/kg body wt. (pre and post treatment), when administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), effects a decrease in serum enzyme levels and the electrocardiographic changes get restored towards normalcy. Arjunolic acid treatment is also shown to prevent the decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, ceruloplasmin, alpha-tocopherol, reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid, lipid peroxide, MPO and the cardioprotection is confirmed by the histopathological studies. This study shows that the cardioprotection of arjunolic acid pre and post treatment could possibly be due to the protective effect against the damage caused by myocardial necrosis.

PMID: 11693190 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antiradical and antilipoperoxidative effects of some plant extracts used by Sri Lankan traditional medical practitioners for cardioprotection.

J Munasinghe TC, Seneviratne CK, Thabrew MI, Abeysekera AM.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayawardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in many pathogenic processes including the cardiovascular system. Detoxification of ROS by antioxidants (AO) therefore affords protection against such diseases. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that antioxidants contribute to cardioprotection. Therefore, nine plants that are components of Ayurvedic formulations used for the therapy of cardiovascular diseases were investigated to determine whether antioxidant activity is one of the mechanisms by which these plants exert cardioprotection. Initially aqueous freeze dried extracts of the plants were prepared and the antioxidant activity was measured (a) in vitro, by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and deoxyribose damage protection assays, and (b) in vivo, by effects on lipid peroxidation. Terminalia arjuna showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity with EC(50) 8.3 +/- 0.3 microg/mL (similar to L-ascorbic acid). The potency of this activity was much lower in Cassia fistula (EC(50) = 59.0 +/- 2.7 microg/mL). The other seven extracts demonstrated no such activity in the concentration range tested. In the deoxyribose damage protection assay, T. arjuna> demonstrated no significant effect in the concentration range 0-20 microg/mL, but above -20 microg/mL concentration (20-125 microg/mL), a pro-oxidant activity was observed (although markedly less than demonstrated by L-ascorbic acid). A similar trend was observed with Vitex negundo. In contrast, C. fistula afforded a 30% protection against such damage at 125 microg/mL concentration. Other plant extracts did not show any activity in this assay. At a dose of 90 mg/kg (single dose) T. arjuna, cardiac lipid peroxidation in male Wistar rats was reduced by 38.8% +/- 2.6% (p<0.05) whereas the reduction was only 11.6% +/- 3.5% in the case of C. fistula even at a dose of 120 mg/kg. Of all the plants tested, T. arjuna demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity. Overall results show that only some plants used in the therapy of cardiovascular disease exert their beneficial effects via antioxidant activity. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 11536382 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Triterpene glycoside from Terminalia arjuna.

Upadhyay RK, Pandey MB, Jha RN, Singh VP, Pandey VB.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

A new triterpene glycoside, arjunetoside, together with oleanolic and arjunic acids has been isolated from the root bark of Terminalia arjuna. The structure of arjunetoside has been established as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2alpha,3beta, 19alpha-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by chemical and spectral data.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11491396 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A new cardenolide from the roots of Terminalia arjuna.

Yadav RN, Rathore K.

Natural Products Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Dr H.S. Gour University, 470 003 (M.P.), Sagar, India. computerplaza@vsnl.com

A new cardenolide, 16,17-dihydroneridienone 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), was isolated from the roots of Terminalia arjuna.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11395280 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of chronic treatment with bark of Terminalia arjuna: a study on the isolated ischemic-reperfused rat heart.

Gauthaman K, Maulik M, Kumari R, Manchanda SC, Dinda AK, Maulik SK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 110 029, New Delhi, India.

Dried pulverized bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn (TA) was administered orally to Wistar albino rats (120-150 g) in two doses [500 and 750 mg/kg in 2% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)], 6 days per week for 12 weeks. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed either for determination of baseline changes in cardiac endogenous antioxidant compounds [superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT)] or the hearts were subjected to oxidative stress associated with in vitro ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI). There was significant increase in the baseline contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (a measure of lipid peroxidation) with both doses of TA. However, only in the 500 mg/kg treated group, this was accompanied by a simultaneous increase in SOD, GSH and CAT levels, but not in the 750 mg/kg treated group, where only CAT was raised. Significant rise in myocardial TBARS and loss of SOD, CAT and GSH (suggestive of increased oxidative stress) occurred in the vehicle-treated hearts subjected to in vitro IRI. Only hearts, harvested from the 500 mg/kg rats treated rats, were significantly protected from oxidative stress, when subjected to in vitro IRI. The results suggest that crude bark of TA augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and also prevents oxidative stress associated with IRI of the heart.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11297851 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


A new cardenolide from the seeds of Terminalia arjuna (W&A).

Yadava RN, Rathore K.

Department of Chemistry, Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar, India. LalitpatelSagar@hotmail.com

A new cardenolide 14,16 dianhydrogitoxigenin-3-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 -->2)- O-beta-D-galactopyranoside was isolated from the ethylacetate soluble fraction of the alcoholic extract of the seeds of Terminalia arjuna by various colour reactions, chemical degradations and spectral analysis.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11252684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic effects of Terminalia arjuna tree-bark powder: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

Gupta R, Singhal S, Goyle A, Sharma VN.

Department of Medicine, Monilek Hospital and Research Centre, Jaipur.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic effects of Terminalia arjuna tree bark (a popular cardiotonic substance in Indian pharmacopoeia) and to compare it with a known antioxidant, vitamin E, we performed a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: One hundred and five successive patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) presenting to our centre were recruited and using a Latin-square design divided into 3 groups of 35 each. The groups were matched for age, lifestyle and dietary variables, clinical diagnosis and drug treatment status. None of the patients was on lipid-lowering drugs. Supplemental vitamins were stopped for one month before study began and American Heart Association Step II dietary advice was given to all. At baseline, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL cholesterol and lipid peroxide estimated as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined. Group I received placebo capsules; Group II vitamin E capsules 400 units/day; and Group III received finely pulverized T. arjuna tree bark-powder (500 mg) in capsules daily. Lipids and lipid peroxide levels were determined at 30 days follow-up. RESULTS: Response rate in various groups varied from 86% to 91%. No significant changes in total, HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels were seen in Groups I and II (paired t-test p > 0.05). In Group III there was a significant decrease in total cholesterol (-9.7 +/- 12.7%), and LDL cholesterol (-15.8 +/- 25.6%) (paired t-test p < 0.01). Lipid peroxide levels decreased significantly in both the treatment groups (p < 0.01). This decrease was more in vitamin E group (-36.4 +/- 17.7%) as compared to the T. arjuna group (-29.3 +/- 18.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Terminalia arjuna tree bark powder has significant antioxidant action that is comparable to vitamin E. In addition, it also has a significant hypocholesterolaemic effect.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 11225136 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antimutagenic potential of extracts isolated from Terminalia arjuna.

Kaur S, Grover IS, Kumar S.

Department of Botanical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India.

Terminalia arjuna is an important medicinal plants widely used in the preparation of Ayurvedic formulations used against several ailments. The present investigation was aimed at the fractionation of crude extracts from the bark of T. arjuna in order to isolate and purify the antimutagenic factors present. The antimutagenicity assay was performed to check the modulatory effect of these fractions against NPD, sodium azide, and 2AF, using the Ames Salmonella his+ reversion assay. Most of the phenolic fractions exhibited mutagen specificity against direct-acting mutagens, being effective in suppressing the frameshift mutagen NPD but failing to inhibit sodium azide (base pair substitution)-induced his+ revertants. ET-1 fraction triterpenoid diglycoside showed a marked effect against sodium azide but was ineffective against NPD. In the case of the indirect-acting mutagen 2AF, all the fractions were found to be quite potent in modulating its mutagenicity in both TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The results indicate that the bark of T. arjuna harbors constituents with promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that should be investigated further.

PMID: 11215710 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Growth suppression of human transformed cells by treatment with bark extracts from a medicinal plant, Terminalia arjuna.

Nagpal A, Meena LS, Kaur S, Grover IS, Wadhwa R, Kaul SC.

National Institute of Bioscience and Human Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

We have investigated the effects of acetone and methanol extracts of a medicinal plant, Terminalia arjuna, on the growth of human normal fibroblasts (WI-38), osteosarcoma (U2OS), and glioblastoma (U251) cells in vitro. We found that both extracts at 30 microg and 60 microg/ml concentrations inhibit the growth of transformed cells; the growth of normal cells was least affected. Although the transformed cells appeared to have fragmented nucleus by Hoechst staining, no deoxy-ribonucleic acid laddering effect was observed. In response to the extract treatment, the tumor suppressor protein, p53, was induced in U2OS but not in U251 and WI-38 cells. A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21WAF1, was induced in transformed cells only. The study suggests that the bark extract of medicinal plant, T. arjuna, has components that can induce growth arrest of transformed cells by p53-dependent and -independent pathways.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11149755 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Modulatory effects of a tannin fraction isolated from Terminalia arjuna on the genotoxicity of mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium.

Kaur SJ, Grover IS, Kumar S.

Department of Botanical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, 143 005, Amritsar, India. sjkaur@rediffmail.com

A fraction isolated from Terminalia arjuna was studied for its antimutagenic effect against 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) in TA98, sodium azide in TA100 and 2-aminofluorene (2AF, S9-dependent), a promutagen, in both TA98 and TA 100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium using the Ames assay. The fraction inhibited the mutagenicity of 2AF very significantly in both strains while the revertant colonies induced by NPD and sodium azide were reduced moderately. 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR and UV-spectroscopic data of the fraction revealed it to be tannin in nature.

PMID: 11033200 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Safety and efficacy of Hartone in stable angina pectoris--an open comparative trial.

Kumar PU, Adhikari P, Pereira P, Bhat P.

Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 'Hartone'--a proprietary herbal product primarily containing Terminalia arjuna in stable angina pectoris patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten patients with stable angina pectoris were given Hartone 2 caps twice daily for 6 weeks and 1 cap twice daily for the next 6 weeks. Haematological and biochemical investigations to assess safety were carried out on day 0, day 42 and day 84. Serum lipid profile was done before and after therapy. Efficacy was assessed by considering the reduction in the number of anginal episodes and improvement in stress test. The results were compared with 10 patients of stable angina pectoris on isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) 20 mg twice daily. RESULTS: Hartone afforded symptomatic relief in 80% of patients and ISMN in 70%. The number of anginal attacks were reduced from 79/wk to 24/wk by Hartone and from 26/wk to 7/wk by ISMN. Although patients of both groups showed improvement in several stress test parameters compared to base line, the difference was not statistically significant. Hartone improved BP response to stress test in two patients and ejection fraction in one. Hartone was better tolerated than ISMN and showed no evidence of hepatic or renal impairment. Its effects on lipid profile was not consistent. CONCLUSION: Hartone is a safe and effective anti-anginal agent comparable to ISMN and is better tolerated. Large scale, randomised, double blind trials are needed to prove its efficacy.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10778587 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Terminalia arjuna.

[No authors listed]

Terminalia arjuna is a deciduous tree found throughout India growing to a height of 60-90 feet. The thick, white-to-pinkish-gray bark has been used in India's native Ayurvedic medicine for over three centuries, primarily as a cardiac tonic. Clinical evaluation of this botanical medicine indicates it can be of benefit in the treatment of coronary artery disease, heart failure, and possibly hypercholesterolemia. It has also been found to be antibacterial and antimutagenic. Terminalia's active constituents include tannins, triterpenoid saponins (arjunic acid, arjunolic acid, arjungenin, arjunglycosides), flavonoids (arjunone, arjunolone, luteolin), gallic acid, ellagic acid, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), phytosterols, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and copper.

PMID: 10608917 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hypolipidemic activity of three indigenous drugs in experimentally induced atherosclerosis.

Shaila HP, Udupa SL, Udupa AL.

Dept. of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.

The effect of orally administered indigenous drugs Terminalia arjuna, T. belerica and T. chebula were investigated on experimental atherosclerosis. Rabbits were fed a cholesterol-rich diet to induce atherosclerosis. The three drugs were fed along with cholesterol. At the end of the experimental period the animals were killed and their plasma and tissue lipid components estimated. Atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta were examined histologically. T. arjuna was found to be the most potent hypolipidemic agent and induced partial inhibition of rabbit atheroma. The results indicate that T. arjuna may play an anti-atherogenic role.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9891944 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Botanical influences on cardiovascular disease.

Miller AL.

Alternative Medicine Review. P.O. Box 25, Dover, ID 83825, USA. alan@thorne.com

Several botanicals, including Crataegus oxycantha, Terminalia arjuna, Inula racemosa, and Astragalus membranaceus, have been found to have therapeutic benefit for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Crataegus oxycantha has been used traditionally as a cardiac tonic and current uses include treatment for angina, hypertension, arrhythmias, and congestive heart failure. Animal studies have also indicated that Crataegus extracts may also have potential use as anti-ischemic and lipid-lowering agents. The bark of the Terminalia arjuna tree has a long history of use as a cardiac tonic as well, and has been indicated in the treatment of coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia and for relief of anginal pain. Additionally, it has been found to have antibacterial and antimutagenic properties. Inula racemosa, also known as Pushkarmoola, is another traditional Ayurvedic botanical that has potential cardioprotective benefit. In human trials, a combination of Inula racemosa and Commiphora mukul was shown to be superior to nitroglycerin in reducing the chest pain and dyspnea associated with angina. Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese herb, is often used as a "Qi tonifier" and has been studied for its therapeutic benefit in treatment of ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and relief of anginal pain. Clinical studies have indicated that its in vitro antioxidant activity is the mechanism by which it affords its cardioprotective benefit.

Publication Types:

PMID: 9855567 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Screening of 34 Indian medicinal plants for antibacterial properties.

Perumal Samy R, Ignacimuthu S, Sen A.

Entomology Research Institute, Loyola College, Chennai, India.

A total of 34 plant species belonging to 18 different families, selected on the basis of folklore medicinal reports practised by the tribal people of Western Ghats, India, were assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aerogenes (gram-negative bacteria) at 1000-5000 ppm using the disc diffusion method. Of these 16 plants showed activity; among them Cassia fistula, Terminalia arjuna and Vitex negundo showed significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. Our findings confirm the traditional therapeutic claims for these herbs.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9741889 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A tannin anti-cancer promotor from Terminalia arjuna.

Kandil FE, Nassar MI.

Proteins and Tanning Materials Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

A new ellagitannin named; arjunin, four known tannins and two phenolic acids were isolated from Terminalia arjuna. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses.

PMID: 9612958 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Role of Lipistat in protection against isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in rats: a biochemical and histopathological study.

Seth SD, Maulik M, Katiyar CK, Maulik SK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

A test drug (Lipistat) comprising of equal-proportions of extracts of Terminalia arjuna, Inula racemosa Hook, latex of Commiphora mukul, in three different doses (225 mg/kg; 350 mg/kg; 450 mg/kg) were administered orally daily for 6 days a week for 60 days in rats. Thereafter, the rats were subjected to isoproterenol (ISO) induced (85 mg/kg, s.c. for 2 days) myocardial necrosis. Gross and microscopic examinations (histopathology) were done along with estimations of myocardial tissue high energy phosphates (HEP) stores and lactate content. Gross examination showed significant (P < 0.05) cardioprotection in Lipistat treated animals. On microscopic examination no statistically significant reduction in myocardial damage by 350 and 450 mg/kg of Lipistat were observed although loss of myocardial HEP stores and accumulation of lactate were significantly prevented. The results of the present study suggest the potential usefulness of Lipistat in the prevention of ischemic heart disease.

PMID: 9513800 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Beneficial effects of Terminalia arjuna in coronary artery disease.

Dwivedi S, Jauhari R.

Department of Medicine, University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi.

Effect of Terminalia arjuna on angina pectoris, congestive heart failure and left ventricular mass was studied in patients of myocardial infarction with angina and/or ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Bark stem powder of T. arjuna, 500 mg 8 hourly was administered to 10 patients of postmyocardial infarction angina and two patients of ischaemic cardiomyopathy, in a dose of 500 mg 8 hourly postoperatively, for a period of three months (Group A). These patients were also on conventional treatment comprising of nitrates, aspirin and/or calcium channel blockers. Twelve age-, sex-, body mass index- and ECG-matched patients of postmyocardial infarction angina receiving only conventional treatment served as controls (Group B). Significant reduction in anginal frequency was noted in both groups (3.5 +/- 1.98 to 1.08 + 1.08 per day vs 3.10 + 0.72 to 1.17 + 0.84 per day). However, only Group A patients showed significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (42.25 + 9.96 to 52.67 + 12.32% vs 51.83 + 5.99 to 49.83 + 2.52%) and reduction in left ventricular mass (159.18 + 51.11 to 127.47 + 52.40 gm/m2 vs 159.11 + 38.92 to 160.78 + 54.23 gm/m2) on echocardiography following three months of therapy. Both patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy showed significant symptomatic relief in coronary heart failure from NYHA class III to NYHA class I. Prolonged administration of T. arjuna did not show any adverse effects on renal, hepatic and haematological parameters. The potential of T. arjuna to improve left ventricular ejection fraction and reduce left ventricular mass in coronary artery disease needs to be harnessed.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 9505018 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antimutagenic potential of ellagic acid isolated from Terminalia arjuna.

Kaur S, Grover IS, Kumar S.

Department of Botanical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India.

Antimutagenic potential of a fraction isolated from Terminalia arjuna has been evaluated in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium against direct and indirect-acting mutagens. The fraction was quite effective against S9-dependent 2AF while it showed moderate effect against NPD. The fraction was analyzed to be ellagic acid.

PMID: 9378517 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Biochemical contents, their variation and changes in free amino acids during seed germination in Terminalia arjuna.

Srivastava N, Prakash D, Behl HM.

National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

The leaves, twigs, stem and bark of T. arjuna were analysed for their protein, phenol, tannin, nitrate, oxalate in addition to vitamin C, anthocyanin and chlorophyll in the leaves. The variation of some of these parameters in the leaves with season and leaf position was also studied. The time course changes in amino acids and protein during seed germination in T. arjuna, showed initial decrease in protein followed by increase at subsequent stages. The seeds contain high level of serine (21.7%) and glutamic acid (22.6%) the later decreased as the germination progressed. After 30 days seeds showed higher amounts of serine (26.0%), valine (2.8%), proline (10.6%), methionine (3.4%), histidine (5.6%) and lysine (7.4%) while threonine, glutamic acid, tyrosine and arginine were in lower amounts than that of initial stage at 0 day.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9205597 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hypocholesterolaemic effects of Terminalia arjuna tree bark.

Ram A, Lauria P, Gupta R, Kumar P, Sharma VN.

Department of Pharmacology, S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur, India.

Diet-induced hyperlipidaemic rabbits were given 50% ethanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna tree bark in doses of 100 mg/kg (Group B, n = 6) and 500 mg/kg (Group C, n = 6) and compared with controls (Group A). At 60 days of intervention in Groups A, B and C mean +/- S.E.M. total cholesterol was 574 +/- 61, 320 +/- 29 and 217 +/- 44 mg/dl, respectively (P < 0.01); LDL cholesterol was 493 +/- 57, 271 +/- 30 and 162 +/- 44 mg/dl (P < 0.01); HDL cholesterol was 59 +/- 7, 36 +/- 3 and 35 +/- 4 mg/dl (P = n.s.); triglyceride was 108 +/- 13, 67 +/- 6 and 101 +/- 26 mg/dl (P = n.s.); cholesterol/HDL ratio was 10.1 +/- 1.3, 9.2 +/- 1.1 and 6.1 +/- 1.0 (P = n.s.); and LDL/HDL ratio was 8.7 +/- 1.3, 7.8 +/- 1.1 and 4.5 +/- 1.0 (P < 0.01). The extract did not adversely affect biochemical tests of liver and renal function and haematological parameters.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9080336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antineoplastic agents 338. The cancer cell growth inhibitory. Constituents of Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae).

Pettit GR, Hoard MS, Doubek DL, Schmidt JM, Pettit RK, Tackett LP, Chapuis JC.

Cancer Research Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287-1604, USA.

By means of bioassay-guided separation methods, the cancer cell growth inhibitory constituents residing in the bark, stem and leaves of the Mauritius medicinal plant Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae) were examined. The cancer cell line active components were found to be gallic acid, ethyl gallate, and the flavone luteolin. Only gallic acid was previously known to occur in this plant. Luteolin has a well established record of inhibiting various cancer cell lines and may account for most of the rationale underlying the use of T. arjuna in traditional cancer treatments. Luteolin was also found to exhibit specific activity against the pathogenic bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 8844460 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A new triterpene glycoside from Terminalia arjuna.

Singh B, Singh VP, Pandey VB, Rücker G.

A new triterpene diglucoside terminolitin (23-deoxyarjunolitin) has been isolated from the fruits of Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae) and was identified by IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy.

Publication Types:

PMID: 17238114 [PubMed]

Salutary effect of Terminalia Arjuna in patients with severe refractory heart failure.

Bharani A, Ganguly A, Bhargava KD.

Department of Medicine, M.G.M. Medical College, Indore, India.

Twelve patients with refractory chronic congestive heart failure (Class IV NYHA), related to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (10 patients); previous myocardial infarction (one patient) and peripartum cardiomyopathy (one patient), received Terminalia Arjuna, an Indian medicinal plant, as bark extract (500 mg 8-hourly) or matching placebo for 2 weeks each, separated by 2 weeks washout period, in a double blind cross over design as an adjuvent to maximally tolerable conventional therapy (Phase I). The clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic evaluation was carried out at baseline and at the end of Terminalia Arjuna and placebo therapy and results were compared. Terminalia Arjuna, compared to placebo, was associated with improvement in symptoms and signs of heart failure, improvement in NYHA Class (Class III vs. Class IV), decrease in echo-left ventricular enddiastolic (125.28 +/- 27.91 vs. 134.56 +/- 29.71 ml/m2; P < 0.005) and endsystolic volume (81.06 +/- 24.60 vs. 94.10 +/- 26.42 ml/m2; P < 0.005) indices, increase in left ventricular stroke volume index (44.21 +/- 11.92 vs. 40.45 +/- 11.56 ml/m2; P < 0.05) and increase in left ventricular ejection fractions (35.33 +/- 7.85 vs. 30.24 +/- 7.13%; P < 0.005). On long term evaluation in an open design (Phase II), wherein Phase I participants continued Terminalia Arjuna in fixed dosage (500 mg 8-hourly) in addition to flexible diuretic, vasodilator and digitalis dosage for 20-28 months (mean 24 months) on outpatient basis, patients showed continued improvement in symptoms, signs, effort tolerance and NYHA Class, with improvement in quality of life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 7649665 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antianginal and cardioprotective effects of Terminalia arjuna, an indigenous drug, in coronary artery disease.

Dwivedi S, Agarwal MP.

Department of Medicine, UCMS, Delhi.

The effect of bark powder of Terminalia arjuna, an indigenous drug, on anginal frequency, blood pressure, body mass index, blood sugar, cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol was studied in 15 stable (Group A) and 5 unstable (Group B) angina patients before and 3 months after T. arjuna therapy. Tread mill test (TMT) and echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction was evaluated in some cases. There was 50% reduction in anginal episodes in Group A cases (P < 0.01). TMT performance improved from moderate to mild changes in 5 patients and one with mild changes became negative for ischemia. The time to the onset of angina and appearance of ST-T changes on TMT after T. arjuna was delayed significantly. However, in patients with unstable angina there was an insignificant reduction in anginal frequency. These patients also needed diltiazem, B-blockers and nitroglycerine in addition to T. arjuna. The drug lowered systolic blood pressure and body mass index to a significant level (p < 0.05) and increased HDL-cholesterol only slightly along with marginal improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction in stable angina patients. There were no deleterious effects on liver or kidney functions. Our results suggest that monotherapy with T. arjuna is fairly effective in patients with symptoms of stable angina pectoris. However, it has a limited role in unstable angina.

PMID: 7741874 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Vasal assault due to Terminalia arjuna W. & A. bark in albino rats.

Chauhan S, Agarwal S, Mathur R.

School of Studies in Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (M P)/India.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 2073059 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

On the ethnomedical significance of the Arjun tree, Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arnot.

Kumar DS, Prabhakar YS.

Department of Physiology, International Institute of Ayurveda, Ramanathapuram, Coimbatore, India.

Terminalia arjuna is an important cardiotonic plant described in the Ayurveda, the ancient Indian medical science. It is also believed to have the ability to cure hepatic, urogenital, venereal and viral diseases. An attempt is made here to analyse the available drug recipes using this plant from Sanskrit literature in the light of modern scientific knowledge. The chemistry and pharmacology of T. arjuna are also discussed, and areas of future investigations are identified.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 3657247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mechanism of Cardiovascular Action of Terminalia arjuna.

Singh N, Kapur KK, Singh SP, Shanker K, Sinha JN, Kohli RP.

Pharmacological Research Unit C.C.R.A.S., Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, King George's Medical College, Lucknow, India.

TERMINALIA ARJUNA (Hindi name Arjuna, Family Combretacae) has been used in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders by Ayurvedic physicians. However, its properties have not been scientifically evaluated so far. Therefore, the present study was carried out to examine the underlying mechanism of the cardiovascular effects of aqueous solution of TERMINALIA ARJUNA extract. Intravenous (I. V.) administration of the extract was found to induce dose dependent decrease in blood pressure (B. P.) and heart rate (H. R.). These extracts also inhibited carotid occlusion response, without affecting the pressor responses, induced by intravenous injection of norepinephrine and by electrical stimulation of preganglionic fibres of the abdominal splanchnic nerve. Hypotension and bradycardia were also observed following the injection of the extract into the lateral cerebral ventricle and vertebral artery. The results of the present study show that the hypotensive and bradycardiac effects of T. ARJUNA are mainly of central origin.

PMID: 17396794 [PubMed - in process]

Sources :- http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov